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Folder Forest Biodiversity

Forests are a characteristic element of Latvian landscape and cover 44% of the land area of the country. In forests, tree form the environment and store organic substances. Forest in Latvia is an ecologically stable ecosystem that secures a balanced maintenance of the environment. In Latvia, forests are diverse, their distribution and characteristic features differ quite greatly in various parts of the country. These differences are determined by climatic and edaphic (soil) conditions, as well in a time span - by human economic activities.


Threats and cevelopment tendences

Forests are dynamic ecosystems. In total, during the last 100 years forests have become more fertile. Area covered by Cladinoso-callunosa has decreased as well as diminished area covered by oligotrophic peaty forests. Also the area covered by conifers decreases, in parallel increasing the area of secondary deciduous tress, like birch and grey alder. Such change of forest species is connected with land use type transformation - overgrowing of agricultural lands and possibly also with the climate change. In the last century, areas covered by forest have increase in the Alūksne, Augszeme and Vidzeme Uplands.


Responsible institutions

State administration and state forest property management institutions:

Scientific institutions:

Non-governmental organizations:



Legislation and policy


Research and monitoring

Forest habitat composition, plant communities, structure and dynamics, species variety is studied at higher education establishments of Latvia. The main centres are:

Branch institutions and offices:

Integrated monitoring


Folder Forest typology
Folder Lichen, bryophyte and vascular plant species diversity in forests
Folder Publications in Latvia
Folder Tree and shrub species